The Catholic Counter Reformation entered the fray with the creation of the Jesuit Orders on this date in 1534. The Jesuits were headed by Xavier. The Order wanted to establish schools and social bettering organizations to lure people from the reformers back to Catholicism. The orders created theological debate and arose the dander of great thinkers like Blaise Pascal.
"You and I supposed that the controversy here would turn upon the great principles of grace; such as whether grace is given to all men? Or if it is efficacious of itself? But we were quite mistaken. You must know I have become a great theologian within this short time; and now for the proofs of it!"